Treatment of ITER Plasma Facing Components: Current Status and Remaining Open Issues before ITER Implementation

The in vessel tritium inventory control is one of the most ITER challenging issues which has to be performed to fulfil safety requirements. This is due mainly to the presence of Carbon as a constituent of Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) which leads to a high fuel permanent retention. For several years now, physics studies and technological developments have been undertaken worldwide in order to develop reliable techniques which could be used in ITER severe environment (magnetic field, vacuum, high temperature) for in situ tritium recovery. The scope of this contribution is to review the present status of these achievements and define the remaining work to be done in order to propose a dedicated work program. Different treatment techniques (chemical treatments, photonic cleaning) will be reviewed. In the frame of ITER, they will be compared in terms of fuel removal efficiency as well as surface accessibility, type of production (gas or particulates), ability to clean mixed material. Lastly, consequences of bulk trapping observed in tokamak on the techniques currently under development will be addressed.
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