The JET Real-Time Plasma-Wall Load Monitoring System
In the past, the Joint European Torus (JET) has operated with a first-wall composed of Carbon Fibre Composite (CFC) tiles. The thermal properties of the wall were monitored in real-time during plasma operations by the WALLS system. This software routinely performed model-based thermal calculations of the divertor and Inner Wall Guard Limiter (IWGL) tiles calculating bulk temperatures and strike-point positions as well as raising alarms when these were beyond operational limits. Operation with the new ITER-like wall presents a whole new set of challenges regarding machine protection. One example relates to the new beryllium limiter tiles with a melting point of 1278oC, which can be achieved during a plasma discharge well before the bulk temperature rises to this value. This requires new and accurate power deposition and thermal diusion models. New systems were deployed for safe operation with the new wall: the Real-Time Protection Sequencer (RTPS) and the Vessel Thermal Map (VTM). The former allows for a coordinated stop of the pulse and the latter uses the surface temperature map, measured by Infra-Red (IR) cameras, to raise alarms in case of hot-spots. Integration of WALLS with these systems is required as RTPS responds to raised alarms and VTM, the primary protection system for the ITER-like wall, can use WALLS as a vessel temperature provider. This paper presents the engineering design, implementation and results of WALLS towards D-T operation, where it will act as a primary protection system when the IR cameras are blinded by the fusion reaction neutrons. The first operational results, with emphasis on its performance, are also presented.