Technological and Physics Assessments on Heating and Current Drive Systems for DEMO
The physics requirements of the heating and current (H&CD) systems in a Demonstration Fusion Power Plant (DEMO) are often beyond the actual level of design maturity and technology readiness required. The recent EU fusion roadmap advocates a pragmatic approach and favours, for the initial design integration studies, systems to be as much as possible, extrapolated from the ITER experience. To reach the goal of demonstrating the production of electricity in DEMO with a closed fuel cycle by 2050, one must ensure reliability, availability, maintainability, inspectability (RAMI) as well as performance, efficiency and optimized design for the H&CD systems. In the recent Power Plant Physics & Technology (PPP&T) Work Programme a number of H&CD studies were performed. The four H&CD systems Neutral Beam (NB) Injection, Electron Cyclotron (EC), Ion Cyclotron (IC) and Lower Hybrid (LH) were considered. First, a physics optimisation study was made assuming all technologies are available and identifying which parameters are needed to optimize performance for given plasma parameters. Separately, the (i) technological maturity was considered (e.g. 240GHz gyrotrons for EC) and (ii) technologies were adapted (e.g. multi-stage depressed collector for EC) or (iii) novel solutions (e.g. photoneutralization for NB or new antennae concepts for IC) were studied to overcome the limitations of the present H&CD systems with respect to DEMO requirements. Further constraints imposed by remote maintenance or breeding blanket interactions were considered.