Studies of ELM Heat Load, SOL Flow and Carbon Erosion from Existing Tokamak Experiments, and Projections for ITER
Three important physics issues for the ITER divertor design and operation are summarized based on the experimental and numerical work from multi-machine database (JET, JT-60U, ASDEX Upgrade, DIII-D, Alcator C-Mod and TEXTOR). (i) The energy load associated with Type-I ELMs is of great concern for the lifetime of the ITER divertor target. In order to understand the physics base of the scaling models, the ELM heat and particle transport from the edge pedestal to the divertor is investigated. Convective transport during ELMs plays an important role in heat transport to the divertor. (ii) Determination of the SOL flow pattern and the driving mechanism has progressed experimentally and numerically. Influences of the drift effects on the SOL and divertor plasma transport were discussed. (iii) Carbon erosion and redeposition are of great importance in particular for tritium retention via codeposition. Characteristics of chemical yield at two different deposited carbon surfaces, i.e. erosion- and redeposition-dominated areas, have been studied. Progress in the understanding of the chemical erosion is reviewed.