Fusion Yield measurements on JET and their Calibration
The power output of fusion experiments and fusion reactor-like devices is measured in terms of the neutron yields which relate directly to the fusion yield. In this paper we describe the devices and methods used to make the new in-situ calibration of JET in April 2013 and its early results. The target accuracy of this calibration was 10%, just as in the earlier JET calibration and as required for ITER, where a precise neutron yield measurement is important, e.g. for tritium accountancy. We discuss the constraints and early decisions which defined the main calibration approach, e.g. the choice of source type and the deployment method. We describe the physics, source issues, safety and engineering aspects required to calibrate directly the Fission Chambers and the Activation System which carry the JET neutron calibration. In particular a direct calibration of the Activation system was planned for the first time in JET. We used the existing JET remote-handling system to deploy the 252Cf source and developed the compatible tooling and systems necessary to ensure safe and efficient deployment in these cases. The scientific programme has sought to better understand the limitations of the calibration, to optimize the measurements and other provisions, to provide corrections for perturbing factors (e.g. presence of the remote-handling boom and other non-standard torus conditions) and to ensure personnel safety and safe working conditions. Much of this work has been based on an extensive programme of Monte-Carlo calculations which e.g. revealed a potential contribution to the neutron yield via a direct line of sight through the ports which presents individually depending on the details of the port geometry.