Experience with High Heat Flux Components in Large Tokamaks

The large present day tokamaks i.e. JET, TFTR, JT-60, DIII-D ,and Tore Supra are machines capable of sustaining plasma currents of several million amperes . Pulse durations range from a few seconds up to a minute. These large machines have been in operation for several years and there exists wide experience with materials for plasma facing components. Bare and coated metals, bare and coated graphites and beryllium were used for walls, limiters and divertors. High heat flux components are mainly radiation cooled, but stationary cooling for long pulse duration is also employed. This paper summarizes the experience gained in the large machines with respect to material selection, component design, problem areas, and plasma performance.
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JETP91011 3.97 Mb